Energy and Climate

The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumes, based on scientific evidence and unequivocally, that climate change is occurring, is caused by human intervention in the environment and will continue to intensify.

The IPCC also highlights the enormous likelihood for greenhouse gas emissions to have been the dominant cause of the warm-up observed in the 20th century. Inextricable from this reality are energy production and consumption, which are essential for the functioning of human societies, but responsible for the sharp increase in many of the pressures upon the environment, such as the emission of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases, waste generation and even the occurrence of large-scale environmental accidents.

The fundamental and increasingly urgent reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels, by encouraging the transfer to alternative, clean and sustainable sources of energy, and the imposition of energy efficiency targets, can only be carried out if supported by robust policy instruments, which systemically address these issues for the long term.

On the other hand, the increase in the occurrence of extreme events, such as heat waves, droughts and floods, demonstrate the significant vulnerability and exposure to climate variability of some ecosystems and many human systems.

While Portugal is among the European countries with greater potential of vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, the severity of the associated risks can be reduced, through the implementation of measures to limit emissions and adapt to these phenomena.

Fact sheets

  • Energy Production and Consumption

    The "Energy production and consumption" fact sheet examines the evolution of energy production and consumption (energy balance), the primary energy consumption per energy source used and the evolution of Portugal's energy dependency vis-à-vis the exterior.

  • Renewable energy
    The "Renewable energy" fact sheet examines the production of energy from renewable sources, its contribution to primary energy consumption and in gross final energy consumption, as well as the contribution of each of the renewable energy sources.
  • Energy and carbon intensity of the economy

    The "Energy and carbon intensity of the economy" fact sheet examines the evolution of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in view of economic growth, in Portugal and in the EU-28. This fact sheet also addresses the emission of the gases generated by energy production and consumption, in relation to its internal consumption.

  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    The "Greenhouse Gas Emissions" fact sheet assesses the annual level of emissions and sequestration of these gases of human origin, in all sectors of the domestic economy, when compared to 1990. The level of anthropogenic emissions is also assessed against commitments undertaken by Portugal within the framework of shared efforts to be undertaken by the Member States, in order to meet the commitments of the European Union (EU) to reduce the GHG emissions by 2020.
  • Rainfall and temperature

    The "Rainfall and temperature" fact sheet examines the variation of annual rainfall and temperature averages in relation to the average values occurred in the 1971-2000 period.